Metal fabrication includes several processes of manufacturing metal components by changing the raw metal material using various tools. The processes can be classified as cold, warm and hot working depending on the temperature at which the material is processed. Most of the objects around us such as paper clips, computers, bolts, nails, automobile parts, parts used for instruments and machinery and countless other products are transformed by metal fabrication processes such as bending, punching, drilling, turning, grinding, threading etc. The factors influencing the process included the type of material being machined, the rate of production, the desired geometry, and other physical requirements of the part.
Fabrication can be divided into the following categories.
- Bending: During bending, the workpiece is bent to form flanges, contours, curls, seams, corrugations and other geometries by means of applying force through hydraulic, pneumatic and electrical machines.
- Conventional shearing: Shearing is a metal cutting process through which flat surfaces cut using a scissors-like action, usually in straight lines.
- Sawing: Sawing is a type of cutting in which the cutting tool is a blade that has a series of teeth, with each tooth removing a small amount of material. Sawing is typically used to shape raw material to the approximate size of the part, prior to additional processes.
- Tapping: Tapping produces internal threads in the workpiece. This involves use of a tool with multiple cutting teeth.
- Boring: Boring produces circular internal profiles in hollow workpiece or on a hole made by drilling or another process.
- Turning:Turning rotates the workpiece about its axis while applying cutting tools to create a desired shape.
- Drilling: Drilling produces holes in a workpiece using a fluted cutting tool.
- Milling: Milling removes small chips using a rotating cutter that moves in three axiis.
- Grinding: Grinding is a chip removal process in which the cutting tool is an abrasive grain wheel. Different types of grinding include Surface grinding, Cylindrical grinding, Internal grinding and Centerless grinding.